使用ELK(Elasticsearch + Logstash + Kibana) 搭建日志集中分析平台实践

前言

Elasticsearch + Logstash + Kibana(ELK)是一套开源的日志管理方案,分析网站的访问情况时我们一般会借助Google/百度/CNZZ等方式嵌入JS做数据统计,但是当网站访问异常或者被攻击时我们需要在后台分析如Nginx的具体日志,而Nginx日志分割/GoAccess/Awstats都是相对简单的单节点解决方案,针对分布式集群或者数据量级较大时会显得心有余而力不足,而ELK的出现可以使我们从容面对新的挑战。

  • Logstash:负责日志的收集,处理和储存
  • Elasticsearch:负责日志检索和分析
  • Kibana:负责日志的可视化

ELK(Elasticsearch + Logstash + Kibana)

组件预览

JDK – http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html
Elasticsearch – https://www.elastic.co/downloads/elasticsearch
Logstash – https://www.elastic.co/downloads/logstash
Kibana – https://www.elastic.co/downloads/kibana
redis – http://redis.io/download

设置FQDN

创建SSL证书的时候需要配置FQDN

#修改hostname
cat /etc/hostname
elk

#修改hosts
cat /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

127.0.0.1 10-10-87-19
10.10.87.19 elk.ooxx.com elk

#刷新环境
hostname -F /etc/hostname

#复查结果
hostname -f
elk.ooxx.com

hostname
elk

服务端

Java

cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS release 6.5 (Final)

yum install java-1.7.0-openjdk
java -version

java version "1.7.0_85"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (rhel-2.6.1.3.el6_6-x86_64 u85-b01)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.85-b03, mixed mode)

Elasticsearch

#下载安装
wget https://download.elastic.co/elasticsearch/elasticsearch/elasticsearch-1.7.1.noarch.rpm
yum localinstall elasticsearch-1.7.1.noarch.rpm 

#启动相关服务
service elasticsearch start
service elasticsearch status

#查看Elasticsearch的配置文件
rpm -qc elasticsearch

/etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml
/etc/elasticsearch/logging.yml
/etc/init.d/elasticsearch
/etc/sysconfig/elasticsearch
/usr/lib/sysctl.d/elasticsearch.conf
/usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch.service
/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/elasticsearch.conf

#查看端口使用情况
netstat -nltp

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name   
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9200                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9300                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1509/sshd           
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1509/sshd  

#测试访问
curl -X GET http://localhost:9200/

Kibana

#下载tar包
wget https://download.elastic.co/kibana/kibana/kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64.tar.gz
#解压
tar zxf kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/
cd /usr/local/
mv kibana-4.1.1-linux-x64 kibana

#创建kibana服务
vi /etc/rc.d/init.d/kibana

#!/bin/bash
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          kibana
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: Runs kibana daemon
# Description: Runs the kibana daemon as a non-root user
### END INIT INFO

# Process name
NAME=kibana
DESC="Kibana4"
PROG="/etc/init.d/kibana"

# Configure location of Kibana bin
KIBANA_BIN=/usr/local/kibana/bin

# PID Info
PID_FOLDER=/var/run/kibana/
PID_FILE=/var/run/kibana/$NAME.pid
LOCK_FILE=/var/lock/subsys/$NAME
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:$KIBANA_BIN
DAEMON=$KIBANA_BIN/$NAME

# Configure User to run daemon process
DAEMON_USER=root
# Configure logging location
KIBANA_LOG=/var/log/kibana.log

# Begin Script
RETVAL=0

if [ `id -u` -ne 0 ]; then
        echo "You need root privileges to run this script"
        exit 1
fi

# Function library
. /etc/init.d/functions
 
start() {
        echo -n "Starting $DESC : "

pid=`pidofproc -p $PID_FILE kibana`
        if [ -n "$pid" ] ; then
                echo "Already running."
                exit 0
        else
        # Start Daemon
if [ ! -d "$PID_FOLDER" ] ; then
                        mkdir $PID_FOLDER
                fi
daemon --user=$DAEMON_USER --pidfile=$PID_FILE $DAEMON 1>"$KIBANA_LOG" 2>&1 &
                sleep 2
                pidofproc node > $PID_FILE
                RETVAL=$?
                [[ $? -eq 0 ]] && success || failure
echo
                [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && touch $LOCK_FILE
                return $RETVAL
        fi
}

reload()
{
    echo "Reload command is not implemented for this service."
    return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
        echo -n "Stopping $DESC : "
        killproc -p $PID_FILE $DAEMON
        RETVAL=$?
echo
        [ $RETVAL = 0 ] && rm -f $PID_FILE $LOCK_FILE
}
 
case "$1" in
  start)
        start
;;
  stop)
        stop
        ;;
  status)
        status -p $PID_FILE $DAEMON
        RETVAL=$?
        ;;
  restart)
        stop
        start
        ;;
  reload)
reload
;;
  *)
# Invalid Arguments, print the following message.
        echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart}" >&2
exit 2
        ;;
esac

#修改启动权限
chmod +x /etc/rc.d/init.d/kibana

#启动kibana服务
service kibana start
service kibana status

#查看端口
netstat -nltp

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name   
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9200                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9300                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1509/sshd           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5601                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1876/node           
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1509/sshd

Logstash

#下载rpm包
wget https://download.elastic.co/logstash/logstash/packages/centos/logstash-1.5.4-1.noarch.rpm
#安装
yum localinstall logstash-1.5.4-1.noarch.rpm 

#设置ssl,之前设置的FQDN是elk.ooxx.com
cd /etc/pki/tls
#openssl req -x509  -batch -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout lumberjack.key -out lumberjack.crt -subj /CN=logstash.example.com
openssl req -subj '/CN=elk.ooxx.com/' -x509 -days 3650 -batch -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout private/logstash-forwarder.key -out certs/logstash-forwarder.crt
 

#创建一个01-logstash-initial.conf文件
cat > /etc/logstash/conf.d/01-logstash-initial.conf << EOF input { lumberjack { port => 5000
    type => "logs"
    ssl_certificate => "/etc/pki/tls/certs/logstash-forwarder.crt"
    ssl_key => "/etc/pki/tls/private/logstash-forwarder.key"
  }
}


filter {
  if [type] == "syslog" {
    grok {
      match => { "message" => "%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:syslog_timestamp} %{SYSLOGHOST:syslog_hostname} %{DATA:syslog_program}(?:\[%{POSINT:syslog_pid}\])?: %{GREEDYDATA:syslog_message}" }
      add_field => [ "received_at", "%{@timestamp}" ]
      add_field => [ "received_from", "%{host}" ]
    }
    syslog_pri { }
    date {
      match => [ "syslog_timestamp", "MMM  d HH:mm:ss", "MMM dd HH:mm:ss" ]
    }
  }
}

output {
  elasticsearch { host => localhost }
  stdout { codec => rubydebug }
}
EOF

#启动logstash服务
service logstash start
service logstash status

#查看5000端口
netstat -nltp

Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name   
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9200                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9300                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1765/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:9301                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      2309/java           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1509/sshd           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5601                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1876/node           
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:5000                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      2309/java           
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1509/sshd  


#启动服务
service logstash-forwarder start
service logstash-forwarder status

#访问Kibana,Time-field name 选择 @timestamp
http://localhost:5601/

#增加节点和客户端配置一样,注意同步证书
/etc/pki/tls/certs/logstash-forwarder.crt

客户端

Logstash Forwarder

#登陆到客户端,安装Logstash Forwarder
wget https://download.elastic.co/logstash-forwarder/binaries/logstash-forwarder-0.4.0-1.x86_64.rpm
yum localinstall logstash-forwarder-0.4.0-1.x86_64.rpm

#查看logstash-forwarder的配置文件位置
rpm -qc logstash-forwarder
/etc/logstash-forwarder.conf

#备份配置文件
cp /etc/logstash-forwarder.conf /etc/logstash-forwarder.conf.save

#编辑 /etc/logstash-forwarder.conf,需要根据实际情况进行修改

cat > /etc/logstash-forwarder.conf << EOF
{
  "network": {
    "servers": [ "elk.ooxx.com:5000" ],

    "ssl ca": "/etc/pki/tls/certs/logstash-forwarder.crt",

    "timeout": 15
  },

  "files": [
    {
      "paths": [
        "/var/log/messages",
        "/var/log/secure"
      ],

      "fields": { "type": "syslog" }
    }
  ]
}
EOF

配置Nginx日志策略

#修改客户端配置
vi /etc/logstash-forwarder.conf

{
  "network": {
    "servers": [ "elk.ooxx.com:5000" ],

    "ssl ca": "/etc/pki/tls/certs/logstash-forwarder.crt",

    "timeout": 15
  },

  "files": [
    {
      "paths": [
        "/var/log/messages",
        "/var/log/secure"
      ],
      "fields": { "type": "syslog" }
    }, {
      "paths": [
        "/app/local/nginx/logs/access.log"
      ],
      "fields": { "type": "nginx" }
    }
  ]
}

#服务端增加patterns
mkdir /opt/logstash/patterns
vi /opt/logstash/patterns/nginx

NGUSERNAME [a-zA-Z\.\@\-\+_%]+
NGUSER %{NGUSERNAME}
NGINXACCESS %{IPORHOST:remote_addr} - - \[%{HTTPDATE:time_local}\] "%{WORD:method} %{URIPATH:path}(?:%{URIPARAM:param})? HTTP/%{NUMBER:httpversion}" %{INT:status} %{INT:body_bytes_sent} %{QS:http_referer} %{QS:http_user_agent}

#官网pattern的debug在线工具
https://grokdebug.herokuapp.com/

#修改logstash权限
chown -R logstash:logstash /opt/logstash/patterns

#修改服务端配置
vi /etc/logstash/conf.d/01-logstash-initial.conf 

input {
  lumberjack {
    port => 5000
    type => "logs"
    ssl_certificate => "/etc/pki/tls/certs/logstash-forwarder.crt"
    ssl_key => "/etc/pki/tls/private/logstash-forwarder.key"
  }
}


filter {
  if [type] == "syslog" {
    grok {
      match => { "message" => "%{SYSLOGTIMESTAMP:syslog_timestamp} %{SYSLOGHOST:syslog_hostname} %{DATA:syslog_program}(?:\[%{POSINT:syslog_pid}\])?: %{GREEDYDATA:syslog_message}" }
      add_field => [ "received_at", "%{@timestamp}" ]
      add_field => [ "received_from", "%{host}" ]
    }
    syslog_pri { }
    date {
      match => [ "syslog_timestamp", "MMM  d HH:mm:ss", "MMM dd HH:mm:ss" ]
    }
  }
  if [type] == "nginx" {
    grok {
       match => { "message" => "%{NGINXACCESS}" }
    }
  }
}

output {
  elasticsearch { host => localhost }
  stdout { codec => rubydebug }
}

其它注意事项

修改kibana端口

#编辑kibana.yaml
vi /usr/local/kibana/config/kibana.yml

# Kibana is served by a back end server. This controls which port to use.
#port: 5601
port: 80

# The host to bind the server to.
host: "0.0.0.0"

# The Elasticsearch instance to use for all your queries.
elasticsearch_url: "http://localhost:9200"

# preserve_elasticsearch_host true will send the hostname specified in `elasticsearch`. If you set it to false,
# then the host you use to connect to *this* Kibana instance will be sent.
elasticsearch_preserve_host: true

# Kibana uses an index in Elasticsearch to store saved searches, visualizations
# and dashboards. It will create a new index if it doesn't already exist.
kibana_index: ".kibana"

# If your Elasticsearch is protected with basic auth, this is the user credentials
# used by the Kibana server to perform maintence on the kibana_index at statup. Your Kibana
# users will still need to authenticate with Elasticsearch (which is proxied thorugh
# the Kibana server)
# kibana_elasticsearch_username: user
# kibana_elasticsearch_password: pass

# If your Elasticsearch requires client certificate and key
# kibana_elasticsearch_client_crt: /path/to/your/client.crt
# kibana_elasticsearch_client_key: /path/to/your/client.key

# If you need to provide a CA certificate for your Elasticsarech instance, put
# the path of the pem file here.
# ca: /path/to/your/CA.pem

# The default application to load.
default_app_id: "discover"

# Time in milliseconds to wait for elasticsearch to respond to pings, defaults to
# request_timeout setting
# ping_timeout: 1500

# Time in milliseconds to wait for responses from the back end or elasticsearch.
# This must be > 0
request_timeout: 300000

# Time in milliseconds for Elasticsearch to wait for responses from shards.
# Set to 0 to disable.
shard_timeout: 0

# Time in milliseconds to wait for Elasticsearch at Kibana startup before retrying
# startup_timeout: 5000

# Set to false to have a complete disregard for the validity of the SSL
# certificate.
verify_ssl: true

# SSL for outgoing requests from the Kibana Server (PEM formatted)
# ssl_key_file: /path/to/your/server.key
# ssl_cert_file: /path/to/your/server.crt

# Set the path to where you would like the process id file to be created.
# pid_file: /var/run/kibana.pid

# If you would like to send the log output to a file you can set the path below.
# This will also turn off the STDOUT log output.
# log_file: ./kibana.log

# Plugins that are included in the build, and no longer found in the plugins/ folder
bundled_plugin_ids:
- plugins/dashboard/index
- plugins/discover/index
- plugins/doc/index
- plugins/kibana/index
- plugins/markdown_vis/index
- plugins/metric_vis/index
- plugins/settings/index
- plugins/table_vis/index
- plugins/vis_types/index
- plugins/visualize/index

JVM调优

#修改elasticsearch.in.sh
vi /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/elasticsearch.in.sh

if [ "x$ES_MIN_MEM" = "x" ]; then
    ES_MIN_MEM=1g
fi
if [ "x$ES_MAX_MEM" = "x" ]; then
    ES_MAX_MEM=1g

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